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    Posted December 17, 2012 by
    hammondcast
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    Setzingen-Ulm, Germany
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    Midnight Cake with James Brown and Michael HammondCast 36

     

    *LISTEN TO THE AUDIO HERE: HammondCast 36 Downloaded 701 times  http://archive.org/details/JonHammondHammondCast36 HammondCast 36 Jon Hammond in New York City just back from Germany music tour and 20th year at Musikmesse Frankfurt trade show...digging deep in to the archives to present a special show put together by Jon in 1993 in Frankfurt Hausen-BROTFABRIK (the old Bread Factory) Jon Hammond presenting French Pianist FRANCOISE PUJOL first time in Germany along with RICHARD BONA on bass from Cameroon & Paris, now living in NY and FRANCIS LASSOUS - drums/batterie. A crazy story about how Jon convinced Bonsedorfer Piano Company to bring their most expensive concert-grand piano for Francoise to play there. The musicians got in to an argument at sound check and Jon almost had to play the famous piano, but thankfully it worked out and the tension made for some great playing! ..  Midnight Cake with James Brown Godfather of Soul - visiting his Godson of Soul Michael Falkenstein and Michael's Family in Setzingen, after a long drive with his entourage in 2 white limousines - that's the manager Judge Bradley on Michael's right - it's good to have a Judge for your personal manager when you are James Brown folks! Jon Hammond Youtube http://youtu.be/VjiDnJM0bd0 Congratulations 30th year Hammond Organ Germany Studio pictorial James Brown Visiting his God Son Michael Falkenstein - incredible must see and hear:  James Brown the Godfather of Soul and his God Son Michael Falkenstein at the Hammond organ with original music soundtrack from Jon Hammond radio program HammondCast - musical selections: Time With You Six Year Itch Get Back In The Groove Watermelon Man Late Rent / HammondCast Outro  R.I.P. Godfather of Soul James Brown - here in Hammond Organ Germany Studios with his actual God Son Michael Falkenstein, amazing but true. enjoy, Jon Hammond http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Brown James Joseph Brown (May 3, 1933 – December 25, 2006) was an American singer, songwriter, musician, and recording artist. He is one of the founding fathers of funk music and is a major figure of 20th century popular music and dance. In a career that spanned six decades, Brown profoundly influenced the development of many different musical genres.[7] Brown moved on a continuum of blues and gospel-based forms and styles to a profoundly "Africanized" approach to music making.[8] First coming to national public attention in the mid 1950's as a member of the R&B singing group The Famous Flames[9][10], Brown performed in concerts, first making his rounds across the Chitlin' Circuit, and then across the country and later around the world, along with appearing in shows on television and in movies. Although he contributed much to the music world through his hitmaking, Brown holds the record as the artist who charted the most singles on the Billboard Hot 100 without ever hitting number one on that chart.[11][12] For many years, Brown's touring show was one of the most extravagant productions in American popular music. At the time of Brown's death, his band included three guitarists, two bass guitar players, two drummers, three horns and a percussionist.[13] The bands that he maintained during the late 1960s and 1970s were of comparable size, and the bands also included a three-piece amplified string section that played during ballads.[14] Brown employed between 40 and 50 people for the James Brown Revue, and members of the revue traveled with him in a bus to cities and towns all over the country, performing upwards of 330 shows a year with almost all of the shows as one-nighters.[15][16] In 1986, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and in 2000 into the Songwriters Hall of Fame.[17] Brown died on Christmas Day 2006 from heart failure after becoming ill two days earlier and being hospitalized for hours. He is buried in Beech Island, South Carolina. Background information Birth name James Joseph Brown, Jr.[1] Also known as "The Godfather of Soul"[2][3][4] Born May 3, 1933 Barnwell, South Carolina, United States Origin Toccoa, Georgia Died December 25, 2006 (aged 73) Atlanta, Georgia[5] Genres R&B, soul, funk, doo-wop, rock 'n' roll, blues, jazz Occupations Musician, songwriter, dancer, bandleader, record producer, actor Instruments Vocals, drums, percussion, piano, keyboards, organ Years active 1945[6]–2006 Labels Federal, King, Dade, Try Me, Smash, People, Polydor, Scotti Bros. Associated acts The Famous Flames, The J.B.'s, Bobby Byrd, The Soul Generals, Lyn Collins, Bobby Bennett, Bootsy Collins  Early life  James Brown was born in Barnwell, South Carolina on May 3, 1933, to Susie (née Behlings) Brown (August 8, 1916 – February 26, 2004)[18] and Joseph ("Joe") Gardner (March 29, 1911 – July 10, 1993) (who changed his surname to Brown after Mattie Brown who raised him).[18] Although Brown was to be named after his father Joseph, his first and middle names were mistakenly reversed on his birth certificate. He therefore became James Joseph Brown, Jr.[1] As a young child, Brown was called Junior. When he later lived with his aunt and cousin, he was called Little Junior since his cousin's nickname was also Junior.[1] Later as an adult, Brown legally changed his name to remove the "Jr." designation. Brown claimed to have African, Chinese and Native American ancestry.[19][20] As a young child, Brown and his family lived in extreme poverty[11] in nearby Elko, South Carolina, which at the time was an impoverished town in Barnwell County. When Brown was two years old, his parents separated after his mother left his father for another man.[21] After his mother abandoned the family, Brown continued to live with his father and his father's live-in girlfriends until he was six years old. His father then sent him to live with an aunt, who ran a house of prostitution.[22] Even though Brown lived with relatives, he spent long stretches of time on his own, hanging out on the streets and hustling to get by.[11] Brown managed to stay in school until he dropped out in the seventh grade.[23] During his childhood, Brown earned money shining shoes, sweeping out stores, selling and trading in old stamps, washing cars and dishes and singing in talent contests.[11] Brown also performed buck dances for change to entertain troops from Camp Gordon at the start of World War II as their convoys traveled over a canal bridge near his aunt's home.[21][22] Between earning money from these adventures, Brown taught himself to play a harmonica given to him by his father.[21] He learned to play some guitar from Tampa Red, in addition to learning to play piano and drums from others he met during this time.[21] Brown was inspired to become an entertainer after watching Louis Jordan, a popular jazz and R&B performer during the 1940s, and Jordan's Tympany Five performing "Caldonia" in a short film.[24] Brown began his performing career at the age of 12, forming his first vocal group, the Cremona Trio in 1945, where they won local talent shows at Augusta concert halls such as the Lenox and Harlem theaters.[6] As a result of this success, the group would later gig at several high schools and local army bases.[6] At the age of sixteen, he was convicted of armed robbery and sent to a juvenile detention center upstate in Toccoa in 1949.[8] While in prison, he formed a gospel quartet with fellow cell mates Johnny Terry, "Hucklebuck" Davis and a person named "Shag", and made homemade instruments – a comb and paper, a washtub bass, a drum kit made from lard tubs and for Brown, what he called "a sort of mandolin [made] out of a wooden box."[6] Due to the latter instrument, Brown was given his first nickname, "Music Box". In 1952, while still in reform school, Brown met future R&B legend Bobby Byrd, who was there playing baseball against the reform school team. Byrd saw Brown perform there and admired his singing and performing talent.[21] As a result of this friendship, Byrd's family helped Brown secure an early release on June 14, 1952 after serving three years of his sentence. The authorities agreed to release Brown on the condition that he would get a job and not return to Augusta or Richmond County and also under the condition he find a decent job and sing for the Lord as he had promised in his parole letter. After stints as a boxer[25] and baseball pitcher in semi-professional baseball (a career move ended by a leg injury), Brown turned his energy toward music.[26] [edit]Career  [edit]1954–1960: The Famous Flames Main article: The Famous Flames By 1954, Brown had tried to get a deal with his gospel group, the Ever Ready Gospel Singers after recording a version of "His Eye Is on the Sparrow", but returned to Toccoa when they failed to get a deal.[6] Returning, his friend Bobby Byrd asked Brown to join his R&B group, the Avons, who had previously gone under the name the Gospel Starlighters to avoid controversy with church leaders. Brown replaced another vocalist, Troy Collins, who died in a car crash.[6] The group, which included alongside Byrd and Brown; Sylvester Keels, Doyle Oglesby, Fred Pulliam and Johnny Terry, modeled themselves after the R&B groups of the day including The Orioles, The Five Keys, and Billy Ward and His Dominoes.[6] Gigging through Georgia and South Carolina, they again changed their name to the Toccoa Band to avoid confusion with two other groups who shared the Avons moniker.[6] Under this name, Brown recruited guitarist Nafloyd Scott and, under their manager Barry Tremier, added assorted percussion.[6] While performing in Macon, Georgia, having now changed their name to The Flames, a club promoter, Clint Brantley (then agent of Brown's idol, Little Richard[27]), suggested the band add "Famous" in front of their name to draw more people to his club.[6] The group began composing and performing their own songs during this time including a Brown composition called "Goin' Back to Rome" and a ballad Brown co-wrote with Terry titled "Please, Please, Please". After Little Richard left Macon for Los Angeles after the release of "Tutti Frutti", Brantley included the band at every venue Richard had performed, leading to the growth of the group's success. Before Christmas 1955, Brantley had the group record a demo of "Please, Please, Please" for a local Macon radio station.[6] Based on two accounts, "Please, Please, Please" was inspired in the following manner: Etta James stated that during her first meeting with Brown in Macon, Brown "used to carry around an old tattered napkin with him, because Little Richard had written the words, 'please, please, please' on it and James was determined to make a song out of it...";[28] the remainder of the song came together after the group heard The Orioles' rock 'n' roll version of Big Joe Williams' hit, "Baby Please Don't Go", taking its melody from the song.[6] Federal Records president Ralph Bass signed the Famous Flames to his label in February 1956 and had them record the song in Cincinnati's King Studios. Released the following March, the song became the Famous Flames' first R&B hit, selling over a million copies.[29] Despite the song's success, other songs such as "I Don't Know", "No No No", "Just Won't Do Right", and "Chonnie-On-Chon" failed to chart.[6] By March 1957, a full year after the release of "Please, Please, Please", most members of the Famous Flames had left the group after the group's new manager, Universal Attractions Agency Chief Ben Bart, insisted that the group's billing be "James Brown and The Famous Flames".[6] After Little Richard left show business for the ministry, Brown was asked to fill in leftover dates leading to an increase in his concert success and the eventual recruitment of members of the vocal group, the Dominions, to replace the Famous Flames. The first single under this new lineup, "That Dood It", failed to chart. In late 1958, Brown financed the demo of the ballad, "Try Me". Released that October, it returned the Famous Flames to the charts and reached No. 1 on the R&B chart in February 1959 becoming the first of 17 chart-topping hits on the R&B chart which were credited to Brown over the next 15 years with six of them credited to the Famous Flames.[30] Bolstered by this success, Brown recruited a new band that consisted of saxophonist J. C. Davis, guitarist Bobby Roach, bassist Bernard Odum, trumpeter Roscoe Patrick, saxophonist Albert Corley, drummer Nat Kendrick and his old band mate Bobby Byrd, who had rejoined Brown's band on organ. This resulted in the next Brown hit, "I Want You So Bad", which peaked in the Top 20 on the Billboard R&B chart.[6] The newly hailed "James Brown Band" debuted at the Apollo Theater on April 24, 1959, opening for Little Willie John.[6] Following his dismissal of the 1957–58 Famous Flames lineup, he hired "Baby" Lloyd Stallworth and Bobby Bennett as replacements with Byrd and Johnny Terry returning as members.[6] The lineup of Brown,Byrd,Bennett,Stallworth, and Terry proved to be the permanent and definitive Famous Flames lineup. The confusion concerning the Famous Flames singing group in the eyes of the public was that, for years, the Famous Flames were often mistaken for, and confused with, Brown's backing band; fellow Famous Flame Byrd was also a member of the backing band at one point. Initially a vocal and instrumental group, the Famous Flames, after signing with Federal, developed into a straight vocal group, a separate entity from the James Brown Band. In early 1960, Brown's band recorded the top ten R&B hit, "(Do the) Mashed Potatoes" on Dade Records, owned by Henry Stone, under the pseudonym "Nat Kendrick & The Swans" because Brown's label refused to release it.[31] As a result of this, Syd Nathan decided to shift Brown's contract from Federal to Federal's parent label, King Records.[6] [edit]1960–1966: Commercial breakthrough By 1960, having been influenced more by jazz music than blues, Brown began incorporating jazz styled arrangements in his music, with Brown naming the Famous Flames hits "I'll Go Crazy" and "Think" as examples of his changing style away from more traditional forms of R&B and rock 'n' roll.[6] Following the two "albums", Please, Please, Please and Try Me under the name James Brown and The Famous Flames, Think! was Brown's first full-length 'solo' album, .[6] Brown's next albums displayed a range from vocal performances to instrumentals. Brown's band recorded the instrumental hit, "Night Train", which was among the first to credit Brown as composer, and which became a Top 5 R&B hit and even briefly crossed over into the Top 40 of the Billboard Hot 100. The ballad "Lost Someone" became, along with "Please, Please, Please", an early show-stopper during Brown's performances, while the recording of the Joe Tex composition, "Baby You're Right" (which Brown altered substantially), increased his reputation with R&B audiences. On October 24, 1962, Brown financed a live recording of a midnight performance at the Apollo and convinced Syd Nathan to release the album. Nathan felt that, because everyone had already brought the singles Brown performed live on this recording, no one would be interested in an album that contained no new material, and he warned Brown that live albums usually were bad sellers. Brown refused to listen, and thus the album, Live at the Apollo was released. The album was a great success, reaching No. 2 on the pop chart and selling a million copies; it stayed on the charts for fourteen months.[32] Influenced by the crossover success of Ray Charles, Brown began to perform pop standards and succeeded with his first Top 20 single, "Prisoner of Love". That year, Brown also launched Try Me Records, releasing records by Tammy Montgomery and Johnny & Bill (Famous Flame Johnny Terry and former Flame Bill Hollings) and the Poets (the latter composed of members of Brown's backing band). In 1964, figuring his deal with King was at an end, Brown and fellow Famous Flame Bobby Byrd formed the production company, Fair Deal, linking the operation to a new label, Mercury imprint Smash Records.[6][33] However, King Records fought Brown's departure and was granted an injunction preventing Brown from releasing any vocal recordings for his new label. Prior to this injunction, Brown had already released three vocal singles, including a cover of Louis Jordan's "Caldonia", and the 12-bar blues rock and roll number, "Out of Sight", which further indicated the direction his sound was going to take.[34] Touring throughout 1964, Brown and The Flames soon grabbed more national attention when they performed a explosive performance in the live concert film The T.A.M.I. Show, where Brown's energetic dance moves together with the polished choreography and timing of the Famous Flames let them upstage the show's closing act, The Rolling Stones. In June 1965, King and Brown signed a new recording contract and released "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag", which became his first Top 10 hit single, winning Brown his first Grammy.[35] Later in 1965, King released the uptempo rock 'n' roll song, "I Got You (I Feel Good)", which, in late 1965, reached No. 1 on the R&B charts and, in early 1966, reached the mainstream Top 10, peaking at No. 3. Later in 1966, Brown's reputation as a hit maker was confirmed with the release of the blues-inspired soul ballad, "It's a Man's Man's Man's World".[35] [edit]1967–1969: Soul Brother No. 1 Brown's success on the charts continued vastly in 1967. His No. 1 R&B hit that year, "Cold Sweat", sometimes cited as the first true funk song, was the first of his recordings to contain a drum break and the first that featured a harmony that was reduced to a single chord.[36][37] The instrumental arrangements on tracks such as "Give It Up Or Turnit A Loose" and "Licking Stick-Licking Stick" (both recorded in 1968) and "Funky Drummer" (recorded in 1969) featured a more developed version of Brown's mid-1960s style, with the horn section, guitars, bass and drums meshed together in intricate rhythmic patterns based on multiple interlocking riffs. Changes in Brown's style that started with "Cold Sweat" also established the musical foundation for Brown's later hits, such as "I Got the Feelin'" (1968) and "Mother Popcorn" (1969). By this time Brown's vocals frequently took the form of a kind of rhythmic declamation, not quite sung but not quite spoken, that only intermittently featured traces of pitch or melody. This would become a major influence on the techniques of rapping, which would come to maturity along with hip hop music in the coming decades. Brown's style of funk in the late 1960s was based on interlocking syncopated parts: funky bass lines, drum patterns, and iconic guitar riffs.[38] The main guitar ostinatos for "Ain't it Funky" (c. late 1960s), and "Give it Up or Turn it Lose" (1969), are examples of Brown's refinement of New Orleans funk; irresistibly danceable riffs, stripped down to their rhythmic essence. On "Ain't it Funky" (c. late 1960s), and "Give it Up or Turn it Lose" (1969), the tonal structure is bare bones. The pattern of attack-points is the emphasis, not the pattern of pitches. It's as if the guitar is an African drum, or idiophone. Alexander Stewart states that this popular feel was passed along from "New Orleans—through James Brown's music, to the popular music of the 1970s."[39] Those same tracks were later resurrected by countless hip-hop musicians from the 1970s onward. As a result, James Brown remains to this day the world's most sampled recording artist,[40] with "Funky Drummer" itself becoming the most sampled individual piece of music "Bring it Up" has an Afro-Cuban guajeo-like structure. In fact, on a 1976 version, Cuban bongos are used. All three of these guitar riffs are based on an onbeat/offbeat structure. Stewart states: "This model, it should be noted, is different from a time line (such as clave and tresillo) in that it is not an exact pattern, but more of a loose organizing principle." It was around this time as the musician's popularity increased that he acquired the nickname, "Soul Brother No. 1", after failing to win the title "King of Soul" from Solomon Burke during a Chicago gig two years prior.[43] Brown's recordings during this period influenced musicians across the industry, most notably groups such as Sly and the Family Stone, Funkadelic, Charles Wright & the Watts 103rd Street Rhythm Band, Booker T. & the M.G.'s as well as vocalists such as Edwin Starr, David Ruffin and Dennis Edwards from The Temptations, and Michael Jackson, who, throughout his career, cited Brown as his ultimate idol.[44] Brown's band during this period employed musicians and arrangers who had come up through the jazz tradition. He was noted for his ability as a bandleader and songwriter to blend the simplicity and drive of R&B with the rhythmic complexity and precision of jazz. Trumpeter Lewis Hamlin and saxophonist/keyboardist Alfred "Pee Wee" Ellis (the successor to previous bandleader Nat Jones) led the band. Guitarist Jimmy Nolen provided percussive, deceptively simple riffs for each song, and Maceo Parker's prominent saxophone solos provided a focal point for many performances. Other members of Brown's band included stalwart Famous Flames singer and sideman Bobby Byrd, drummers John "Jabo" Starks, Clyde Stubblefield and Melvin Parker, saxophonist St. Clair Pinckney, trombonist Fred Wesley, guitarist Alphonso "Country" Kellum and bassist Bernard Odum. During this period, Brown's music empire also expanded along with his influence on the music scene. As Brown's music empire grew, his desire for financial and artistic independence grew as well. Brown bought radio stations during the late 1960s, including WRDW in his native Augusta, where he shined shoes as a boy.[35] In November 1967, James Brown purchased radio station WGYW in Knoxville, Tennessee for a reported $75,000, according to the January 20, 1968 Record World magazine. The call letters were changed to WJBE reflecting his initials. WJBE began on January 15, 1968 and broadcast a Rhythm & Blues format. The station slogan was "WJBE 1430 Raw Soul". Brown also bought WEBB in Baltimore in 1970. At the time it was mentioned "Brown has also branched out into real estate and music publishing in recent months". Brown also branched out to make several recordings with musicians outside his own band. In an attempt to appeal to the older, more affluent, and predominantly white adult contemporary audience, Brown recorded Gettin' Down To It (1969) and Soul on Top (1970)--two albums consisting mostly of romantic ballads, jazz standards, and homologous reinterpretations of his earlier hits—with the Dee Felice Trio and the Louie Bellson Orchestra. In 1968, he recorded a number of funk-oriented tracks with The Dapps, a white Cincinnati bar band, including the hit "I Can't Stand Myself (When You Touch Me)". He also released three albums of Christmas music with his own band. [edit]1970–1976: Godfather of Soul In March 1970, most of the members of Brown's mid-to-late 1960s road band walked out on him due to money disputes. Additionally, The Famous Flames singing group disbanded for the same reason, with only original and founding member Bobby Byrd electing to remain with Brown. Brown and Byrd subsequently recruited several members of the Cincinnati-based The Pacemakers, which included Bootsy Collins and his brother Phelps "Catfish" Collins; augmented by the remaining members of the 1960s road band (including Fred Wesley, who rejoined Brown's outfit in December 1970) and other newer musicians, they would form the nucleus of The J.B.'s, Brown's new backing ensemble. Shortly following their first performance together, the band entered the studio to record the Brown-Byrd composition, "Get Up (I Feel Like Being a) Sex Machine"; the song and other contemporaneous singles would further concretize Brown's influence in the nascent genre of funk music. This iteration of The J.B.'s dissolved after a March 1971 European tour (documented on the 1991 archival release Love Power Peace) due to additional money disputes and Bootsy Collins' use of LSD; the Collins brothers would soon become integral members of Parliament-Funkadelic, while a new lineup of The J.B.'s coalesced around Wesley, St. Clair Pinckney, and drummer John Starks. In 1971, Brown began recording for Polydor Records which also took over distribution of Brown's King Records catalog. Many of his sidemen and supporting players, including Fred Wesley & The J.B.'s, Bobby Byrd, Lyn Collins, Vicki Anderson and former rival Hank Ballard, released records on the People label, an imprint founded by Brown that was purchased by Polydor as part of Brown's new contract. The recordings on the People label, almost all of which were produced by Brown himself, exemplified his "house style". Songs such as "I Know You Got Soul" by Bobby Byrd, "Think (About It)" by Lyn Collins and "Doing It to Death" by Fred Wesley & The J.B.'s are considered as much a part of Brown's recorded legacy as the recordings released under his own name. That year, he also began touring African countries and was received well by audiences there. During the 1972 presidential election, James Brown openly proclaimed his support of Richard Nixon for reelection of the presidency over Democrat candidate George McGovern.[45] The decision led to a boycott of his records being played on radio and concert ticket drops. As a result Brown's record sales and concerts in the United States reached a lull in 1973 as he failed to land a number-one R&B single that year. Brown relied more on touring outside the United States where he continued to perform for sold-out crowds in cities such as London, Paris and Lausanne. That year, Brown also faced problems with the IRS for failure to pay back taxes, charging he hadn't paid upwards of $4.5 million, five years earlier, the IRS claimed he owed nearly $2 million.[46] In 1973, Brown provided the score for the blaxploitation film Black Caesar. He also recorded another soundtrack for the film, Slaughter's Big Rip-Off. Following the release of these soundtracks, Brown acquired a self-styled nickname, "The Godfather of Soul", which remains his most popular nickname. In 1974, he returned to the No. 1 spot on the R&B charts with "The Payback", with the parent album reaching the same spot on the album charts; he would reach No. 1 two more times in 1974 including "My Thang" and "Papa Don't Take No Mess". Later that year, he returned to Africa and performed in Kinshasa as part of the buildup to The Rumble in the Jungle fight between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman. Admirers of Brown's music, including Miles Davis and other jazz musicians, began to cite Brown as a major influence on their own styles. However, Brown, like others who were influenced by his music, also "borrowed" from other musicians. His 1976 single "Hot (I Need To Be Loved, Loved, Loved, Loved)" (R&B #31) used the main riff from "Fame" by David Bowie, not the other way around as was often believed. The riff was provided to "Fame" co-writers John Lennon and Bowie by guitarist Carlos Alomar, who had briefly been a member of Brown's band in the late 1960s.[47] Brown's "Papa Don't Take No Mess" would be his final single to reach the No. 1 spot on the R&B charts and his final Top 40 pop single of the 1970s, though Brown continued to occasionally have Top 10 R&B recordings. Among his top ten R&B hits during this latter period included "Funky President (People It's Bad)" and "Get Up Offa That Thing", the latter song released in 1976 and aimed at musical rivals such as Barry White, The Ohio Players and K.C. and the Sunshine Band. Brown credited his then-second wife and two of their children as writers of the song to avoid concurrent tax problems with the IRS. [edit]1977–1988: Decline and resurgence  By 1977, Brown was no longer a dominant force in R&B. After "Get Up Offa That Thing", thirteen of Brown's late 1970s recordings for Polydor, failed to reach the Top 10 of the R&B chart, with only "Body Heat" in 1976 and the disco-oriented "It's Too Funky in Here" in 1979 reaching the R&B Top 15 and the ballad "Kiss in '77" reaching the Top 20. After 1976's "Bodyheat", he also failed to appear on the Billboard Hot 100. As a result, Brown's concert attendance began dropping and reported disputes with the IRS caused Brown's empire to collapse. In addition, Brown's former band mates, including Fred Wesley, Maceo Parker and the Collins brothers, had found bigger success as members of George Clinton's Parliament-Funkadelic collective. The emergence of disco also stopped Brown's success on the R&B charts as its slicker commercial style had superseded his rawer funk productions. Brown recorded disco material on his albums starting with 1975's Sex Machine Today, producing less than favorable results. By the release of 1979's The Original Disco Man, Brown wasn't providing much production or writing, leading most of it to producer Brad Shapiro, resulting in the song "It's Too Funky in Here" becoming Brown's most successful single in this period. After two more albums failed to chart, Brown left Polydor in 1981. It was right along this time that Brown changed the name of his band from The J.B.'s to the Soul Generals (or Soul G's). This band's name remained that way until his death. Despite a fallout from record sales, Brown enjoyed something of a resurgence in this period starting with cameo roles in the feature films The Blues Brothers, Doctor Detroit and Rocky IV, as well as guest starring in the Miami Vice episode "Missing Hours" (1988). In 1984, Brown teamed with rap musician Afrika Bambaattaa on the song, "Unity". A year later he signed with Scotti Brothers Records and issued the moderately successful album, Gravity, in 1986, which included Brown's final Top 10 pop hit, "Living in America", marking his first Top 40 entry since 1974 and his first Top 10 pop entry since 1968. Produced and written by Dan Hartman, it was also featured prominently on the Rocky IV film and soundtrack. Brown performed the song in the film at Apollo Creed's final fight, shot in the Ziegfeld Room at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas and was credited in the film as "The Godfather of Soul." In 1987, Brown won the Grammy for Best Male R&B Vocal Performance for "Living in America." In 1988, Brown worked with the production team Full Force on the new jack swing-influenced album I'm Real, which spawned his final two Top 10 R&B hits, "I'm Real" and "Static", which peaked at No. 2 and No. 5, respectively, on the R&B charts. Meanwhile, the drum break from the second version of the original 1969 hit "Give It Up Or Turnit A Loose" (the recording included on the compilation album In the Jungle Groove) became so popular at hip hop dance parties (especially for breakdance) during the late 1970s and early 1980s that hip hop founding father Kurtis Blow called the song "the national anthem of hip hop". 1991–2006: Final years   James Brown in Belgrade in 1993 After his stint in prison during the late 1980s, Brown returned with the album, Love Overdue, in 1991, which included the single, "(So Tired Of Standing Still We Got To) Move On", which peaked at No. 48 on the R&B chart. His former record label Polydor also released the four-CD box set, Star Time, featuring nearly all of Brown's hit recordings. Brown's release from prison also sparked Brown's former record labels to reissue the musician's albums on CD, featuring additional singles and commentary by experts on Brown's music. That same year, Brown guest appeared on rapper MC Hammer's video for "Too Legit to Quit". Hammer had been noted, alongside Big Daddy Kane, for bringing Brown's unique stage shows and their own energetic dance moves to the hip-hop generation, with both Hammer and Kane listing Brown as their idol. Both musicians also sampled Brown's work, with Hammer having sampled the rhythms from "Super Bad" for his song, "Here Comes the Hammer", from his best-selling work, Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em. Before the year was over, Brown, who had immediately returned to work with his band following his release, organized a pay-per-view concert following a show at Los Angeles' Wiltern Theatre, that was well received. Brown continued releasing recordings: in 1993, he issued the album, Universal James, which included Brown's final Billboard charted single, "Can't Get Any Harder", which peaked at No. 76 on the US R&B chart and No. 59 on the UK chart. Its brief charting in the UK was probably due to the success of a remixed version of "I Feel Good" featuring Dakeyne. Brown also released the singles, "How Long" and "Georgia-Lina", these songs failed to chart. In 1995, Brown returned to the Apollo, and released the live album, Live at the Apollo 1995, which included a studio track titled "Respect Me", which was released as a single; again it failed to chart. He followed that song by releasing the megamix, "Hooked on Brown", in 1996. Brown's final studio albums, I'm Back and The Next Step, were released in 1998 and 2002 respectively. I'm Back featured Brown's final charted single to date, "Funk On Ah Roll", which peaked at No. 40 in the UK but didn't chart in his native America. The Next Step issued Brown's final single, "Killing is Out, School is In". Both albums were produced by Derrick Monk. Brown's concert success, however, remained unabated and Brown kept up with a grueling schedule throughout the remainder of his life, living up to his previous nickname, "The Hardest Working Man in Show Business", in spite of his advanced age. In 2003, Brown participated in the PBS American Masters television documentary James Brown: Soul Survivor, which was directed by Jeremy Marre. Brown celebrated his status as an icon by appearing in a variety of entertainment and sports events, including an appearance on the WCW pay-per-view event, SuperBrawl X, where he danced alongside wrestler Ernest "The Cat" Miller, who based his character on Brown, during his in-ring skit with The Maestro. Brown was then featured in Tony Scott's short film, Beat the Devil, in 2001. Brown was featured alongside Clive Owen, Gary Oldman, Danny Trejo and Marilyn Manson.[49] Brown also made a cameo appearance in the 2002 Jackie Chan film The Tuxedo, in which Chan was required to finish Brown's act after Brown was accidentally knocked out by Chan.[50] In 2002, Brown appeared in Undercover Brother, playing himself.   James Brown performing on October 22, 2003 Brown appeared at Edinburgh 50,000 – The Final Push, the final Live 8 concert on July 6, 2005, where he performed a duet with British pop star Will Young on "Papa's Got A Brand New Bag". He also performed a duet with another British pop star, Joss Stone, a week earlier on the United Kingdom chat show Friday Night with Jonathan Ross. Before his death, Brown was scheduled to perform a duet with singer Annie Lennox on the song "Vengeance" for her new album Venus, which was released in 2007. In 2006, Brown continued his "Seven Decades Of Funk World Tour", his last concert tour where he performed all over the world. His final U.S. performance was in San Francisco on August 20, 2006, as headliner at the Festival of the Golden Gate (Foggfest) on the Great Meadow at Fort Mason. His last shows were greeted with positive reviews, and one of his final concert appearances at the Irish Oxegen festival in Punchestown in 2006 was performed for a record crowd of 80,000 people. Brown's last televised appearance was at his induction into the UK Music Hall of Fame in November 2006, before his death the following month. [edit]James Brown Revue  [edit]Concert introduction Before James Brown appeared on stage, his personal MC gave him an elaborate introduction accompanied by drumrolls, as the MC worked in Brown's various sobriquets along with the names of many of his hit songs. The introduction by Fats Gonder, captured on Brown's 1962 album Live at the Apollo album, is a representative example: So now ladies and gentlemen it is star time, are you ready for star time? Thank you and thank you very kindly. It is indeed a great pleasure to present to you at this particular time, national and international[ly] known as the hardest working man in show business, the man that sings "I'll Go Crazy" ... "Try Me" ... "You've Got the Power" ... "Think" ... "If You Want Me" ... "I Don't Mind" ... "Bewildered" ...the million dollar seller, "Lost Someone" ... the very latest release, "Night Train" ... let's everybody "Shout and Shimmy" ... Mr. Dynamite, the amazing Mr. Please Please himself, the star of the show, James Brown and The Famous Flames!![51] Among the MCs who worked with Brown and his revue through the years, Brown's most famous MC was Danny Ray, who appeared on stage with him for over 30 years. Concert repertoire and format   Brown and MC Danny Ray during cape routine, BBC Electric Proms '06 concert James Brown's performances were famous for their intensity and length. His own stated goal was to "give people more than what they came for — make them tired, 'cause that's what they came for.'"[52] Brown's concert repertoire consisted mostly of his own hits and recent songs, with a few R&B covers mixed in. Brown danced vigorously as he sang, working popular dance steps such as the Mashed Potato into his routine along with dramatic leaps, splits and slides. In addition, his horn players and backup singers (The Famous Flames) typically performed choreographed dance routines, and later incarnations of the Revue included backup dancers. Male performers in the Revue were required to wear tuxedoes and cummerbunds long after more casual concert wear became the norm among the younger musical acts. Brown's own extravagant outfits and his elaborate processed hairdo completed the visual impression. A James Brown concert typically included a performance by a featured vocalist, such as Vicki Anderson or Marva Whitney, and an instrumental feature for the band, which sometimes served as the opening act for the show. Although Brown released many live albums, Say It Live & Loud: Live in Dallas August 26, 1968, released by Polydor in 1998, was one of only a few audio recordings that captured a performance of the James Brown Revue from beginning to end. [edit]Cape routine A trademark feature of Brown's stage shows, usually during the song "Please, Please, Please", involved Brown dropping to his knees while clutching the microphone stand in his hands, prompting the show's longtime MC, Danny Ray, to come out, drape a cape over Brown's shoulders and escort him off the stage after he had worked himself to exhaustion during his performance. As Brown was escorted off the stage by the MC, Brown's vocal group, The Famous Flames, continued singing the background vocals "Please, please don't go-oh-oh".[53] Brown would then shake off the cape and stagger back to the microphone to perform an encore. Brown's routine was inspired by a similar one used by the professional wrestler Gorgeous George.[51][54] Brown performs a version of the cape routine over the closing credits of the film Blues Brothers 2000. The best place to view the "cape routine" is in Brown's performance during the "T.A.M.I. Show" available on DVD. [edit]As band leader Brown demanded extreme discipline, perfection and precision from his musicians and dancers — right down to when performers in his Revue showed up for rehearsals all the way to whether members wore the right "uniform" or "costume" for concert performances.[55] During an interview conducted by Terri Gross during the NPR segment "Fresh Air" with Maceo Parker, a former saxophonist in Brown's band for most of the 1960s and part of the 1970s and 1980s, Parker offered his experience with the discipline that Brown demanded of the band: You gotta be on time. You gotta have your uniform. Your stuff's got to be intact. You gotta have the bow tie. You got to have it. You can't come up without the bow tie. You cannot come up without a cummerbund ... [The] patent leather shoes we were wearing at the time gotta be greased. You just gotta have this stuff. This is what [Brown expected] ... [Brown] bought the costumes. He bought the shoes. And if for some reason [the band member decided] to leave the group, [Brown told the person to] please leave my uniforms .... —Maceo Parker[56] Brown also had a practice of directing, correcting and assessing fines on members of his band who broke his rules, such as wearing unshined shoes, dancing out of sync or showing up late on stage.[26] During some of his concert performances, Brown danced in front of his band with his back to the audience as he slid across the floor, flashing hand signals and splaying his pulsating fingers to the beat of the music. Although audiences thought Brown's dance routine was part of his act, this practice was actually his way of pointing to the offending member of his troupe who played or sang the wrong note or committed some other infraction. Brown used his splayed fingers and hand signals to alert the offending person of the fine that person must pay to him for breaking his rules.[57] Brown's demands of his support acts were, however, quite the reverse. As Fred Wesley recalled of his time as MD of the JBs, if Brown felt intimidated by a support act he would try "To undermine their performances by shortening their sets without notice, demanding that they not do certain showstopping songs, and even insisting on doing the unthinkable, playing drums on some of their songs. A sure set killer." Social activism    Brown shakes the hand of the painter Groover, who gave him a picture during his tour in Guadeloupe in the 1980s [edit]Education advocacy and humanitarianism Influenced by his own troubled childhood, which included having to be forced out of seventh grade for wearing "insufficient clothes", Brown's main non-musical activism was in preserving the need for education among youths, particularly black youths, who consisted of large school dropout rates in the mid-1960s. As a result of this, Brown was motivated to write the song, "Don't Be a Drop-Out", which was released in 1966 under the "James Brown and The Famous Flames" billing though the actual recording featured none of its members with the exception of Brown. The song's royalties were later donated to charity used for drop-out prevention programs, which later resulted in Brown meeting up with President Lyndon B. Johnson, who gave him a citation for being a positive role model to the youth. Throughout the remainder of his life, Brown made public speeches in front of dozens of children and continued to advocate the importance of education in school. Upon filing his will in 2002, Brown advised that most of the money in his estate go into creating the I Feel Good, Inc. Trust to benefit disadvantaged children and provide scholarships for his grandchildren. His final single, "Killing Is Out, School Is In", advocated against murders of young children in the streets. Brown often went on trips to his childhood neighborhood in Augusta and gave out money and other items to those he felt were in need. A week before his death in December 2006, a gravely ill-looking Brown took time to give out Christmas toys and turkeys to an Atlanta orphanage. Brown had done this several times over the years. [edit]Civil rights and self-reliance Brown and his band first participated in benefit concerts for civil rights groups starting in 1965, performing for organizations such as the SCLC. In 1968, Brown recorded two socially conscious songs, "America Is My Home" and "Say It Loud - I'm Black and I'm Proud".[35] The former song, in which Brown performed a rap, advocated patriotism and went against the majority of some anti-patriotic views of the country, particularly pointing out that America was one of the few countries where "you can start as a shoeshine boy and shake hands with the President" and to "stop pitying yoursel[ves] and get up and fight." This coincided with Brown's participation in performing in front of troops during the Vietnam War. "Say It Loud" was written in response from some black civil rights organizations to take a bigger stance in their movements, an issue that Brown wasn't much involved in at the time. The song was inspired by television coverage of black on black crime as well as concurrent issues concerning the race riots that occurred following Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s death while Brown was in Los Angeles. Brown wrote the words and asked his bandleader at the time, Alfred "Pee Wee" Ellis, to compose the music. The song's lyrics helped to make it an anthem to the civil rights movement. Some critics later stated that the song had gotten through to black youths better than some civil rights leaders' speeches. Throughout the remainder of his career and after his death, Brown was credited by some of his admirers for "destroying the word Negro from the vocabulary and making it cool to call yourself 'Black'." Brown was more or so indifferent to the response of the song only performing it sporadically after 1969, later stating in his 1986 autobiography: The song is obsolete now... But it was necessary to teach pride then, and I think the song did a lot of good for a lot of people... People called "Black and Proud" militant and angry – maybe because of the line about dying on your feet instead of living on your knees. But really, if you listen to it, it sounds like a children's song. That's why I had children in it, so children who heard it could grow up feeling pride... The song cost me a lot of my crossover audience. The racial makeup at my concerts was mostly black after that. I don't regret it, though, even if it was misunderstood.”[59] He performed in front of a televised audience in Boston the day after Dr. King's death.[35] Brown has been often given credit for preventing rioting with the performance though that was disputed due to the airing of the PBS/VH-1 special, The Night James Brown Saved Boston.[60] Mayor Kevin White strongly restrained the Boston Police from cracking down on minor violence and protests after the assassination,[60] and Boston religious and community leaders worked to keep tempers from flaring.[60] Also, White arranged to have the Brown performance broadcast multiple times on Boston's public television station, WGBH, thus keeping many potential rioters off the streets, watching the concert for free. Brown demanded $60,000 for "gate" fees (money he thought would be lost from ticket sales on account of the concert being broadcast for free), and then threatened to go public about the secret arrangement when the city balked at paying up after the concert, news of which would have been a political death-blow to White, and possibly sparked riots on its own.[60] White successfully lobbied the behind-the-scenes power-brokering group known as "The Vault" to come up with money for Brown's gate fee and other social programs; The Vault contributed $100,000 to such programs, and Brown received $15,000 from them via the city. White persuaded management at the Boston Garden to give up their share of receipts to make up the difference.[60] Brown was then advised by the then current administration of President Johnson to travel to riot-torn black communities and advise the youth to "cool it, there is another way" of addressing racism and other issues.[61] In 1971, he was made "freeman of the city" in Lagos, Nigeria after performing there by Oba Adeyinka Oyekan, for his "influence on Black people all over the world."[62] With his company, James Brown Enterprises, Brown helped to provide jobs for blacks in businesses in the communities.[63] Though Brown seemed to show support toward causes to improve the conditions of youths, he was against anything that he felt went against his beliefs, often criticizing militant black leaders in songs such as "Get Up, Get Into It, Get Involved" and "Talkin' Loud and Sayin' Nothing", the latter song in which he was often accused of not doing more for blacks. Brown also recorded songs aiming towards self-reliance including "I Don't Want Nobody to Give Me Nothing (Open Up the Door, I'll Get It Myself)". As the early 1970s continued, he performed songs of other social matters that were troubling the black community including drug abuse in the song, "King Heroin", in 1972. [edit]Political views Though Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson was the one who convinced Brown to go to riot-torn inner cities in the wake of the King assassination, Brown was a staunch Republican.[64] Although he initially spoke at political rallies with Hubert Humphrey, following the riots that engaged during the 1968 Democratic National Convention, Brown switched his endorsement to Richard Nixon and was one of the few Black celebrities who openly admitted it. During the 1972 presidential election, Brown again endorsed Nixon for his second term. Because of a perceived heavily negative view of Nixon by blacks, Brown's records faced boycott in several radio stations across the country as a result of angry black leaders' disgust at Brown's stance. Some of the singer's concerts during this time were protested. Brown also upset black liberals by agreeing to perform for troops during the Vietnam War despite the public's growing opposition against the war at the time. In 1999, when being interviewed by Rolling Stone, the magazine asked him to name a hero in the 20th century, Brown mentioned Republican Senator Strom Thurmond, stating "when the young whippersnappers get out of line, whether Democrat or Republican, an old man can walk up and say 'Wait a minute, son, it goes this way.' And that's great for our country. He's like a grandfather to me."[64] Thurmond and his son eventually helped to get Brown be released on parole from his six-year prison sentence in 1991. In 2003, Brown was the featured attraction of a D.C. fundraiser for the National Republican Senatorial Committee.[64] Following the deaths of Ronald Reagan and his friend and fellow Republican Ray Charles, Brown said to CNN, "I'm kind of in an uproar. I love the country and I got – you know I've been around a long time, through many presidents and everything. So after losing Mr. Reagan, who I knew very well, then Mr. Ray Charles, who I worked with and lived with like, all our life, we had a show together in Oakland many, many years ago and it's like you found the placard."[64] [edit]Personal life  At the end of his life, James Brown lived in a riverfront home in Beech Island, South Carolina, directly across the Savannah River from Augusta, Georgia. James Brown was diagnosed with diabetes at a very early stage of his life.[citation needed] In 2004 Brown was successfully treated for prostate cancer.[65] Regardless of his health, Brown maintained his reputation as the "hardest working man in show business" by keeping up with his grueling performance schedule. [edit]Marriages and children Brown was married three times — Velma Warren (1953–1969, divorced), Deidre "Deedee" Jenkins (October 22, 1970 – January 10, 1981, divorced) and Adrienne Lois Rodriguez (March 9, 1950 – January 6, 1996) (1984–1996, wife's death). He also had a relationship with Tomi Rae Hynie (2001–2004). From these and other relationships, James Brown had five sons — Teddy Brown (1954–1973), Terry Brown, Larry Brown, Daryl Brown (a member of Brown's backing band) and James Joseph Brown II, in addition to four daughters — Lisa Brown, Dr. Yamma Noyola Brown Lumar, Deanna Brown Thomas and Venisha Brown.[5][66][67] Brown also had eight grandchildren and four great-grandchildren.[5][66] Brown's eldest son, Teddy, died in a car crash on June 14, 1973.[68] According to an August 22, 2007 article published in the British newspaper The Daily Telegraph, DNA tests indicate that Brown also fathered at least three extramarital children. The only one of them who has been identified is LaRhonda Pettit (born 1962), a retired air stewardess and teacher who lives in Houston.[69] [edit]Brown-Hynie marriage controversy Much controversy surrounds Tomi Rae Hynie's marriage to James Brown on December 23, 2002, officiated by Rev. Larry Fryer.[70] Brown's longtime attorney, Albert "Buddy" Dallas, reported that the marriage between Brown and Hynie was not valid because Hynie was married at that time to Javed Ahmed, a Bangladeshi whom Hynie claimed married her for a Green Card in an immigration fraud. Although Hynie stated that her marriage to Javed Ahmed was later annulled, this annulment did not occur until April 2004.[70][71] In an interview on CNN with Larry King, Hynie produced a 2001 marriage certificate as proof of her marriage to James Brown, but she did not provide King with court records pointing to an annulment of her marriage to him or to Ahmed.[72] According to Dallas, Brown was angry and hurt that Hynie concealed her prior marriage from him, and that Brown moved to file for annulment from Hynie.[73] Dallas added that, although Hynie's marriage to Javed Ahmed was annulled after she married James Brown, the Brown-Hynie marriage was not valid under South Carolina law because Brown and Hynie did not remarry after the annulment.[72][74] In August 2003, Brown took out a full-page public notice in Variety Magazine featuring Hynie, James II and himself on vacation at Disney World to announce that he and Hynie were going their separate ways.[75][76] [edit]Paternity of James Brown II In a separate CNN interview, Debra Opri, another Brown family attorney, revealed to Larry King that Brown wanted a DNA test performed after his death to confirm the paternity of James Brown II — not for Brown's sake, but for the sake of the other family members.[77] In April 2007, Hynie selected a guardian ad litem whom she wants appointed by the court to represent her son, James Brown II, in the paternity proceedings.[78] [edit]Drug addiction Throughout the first 20 years of Brown's career, Brown was known to carry around a drug-free policy with any member of his entourage, including his band, firing people for disobeying orders, especially those who would use or abuse drugs. Brown's policy caused some of the "interim members" of Brown's vocal group The Famous Flames being fired for their usage of drugs and alcohol. Noting of this policy, some of the original members of Brown's 1970s band, The J.B.'s including the Collins brothers, Catfish and Bootsy, intentionally got high on acid during a 1971 concert gig, causing Brown to fire them after the show because he had expected them to be on drugs all along, according to Bootsy Collins. Though this policy maintained through the mid-1970s, by the late-1970s, it was alleged that Brown himself had started to use drugs. By the mid-1980s, after meeting and marrying Adrienne Rodriguez, she and Brown began using PCP, or "angel dust". A PCP-triggered Brown would be later arrested several times in the mid-1980s and early-1990s for domestic violence against Rodriguez. After being arrested in May 1988 for allegedly hitting Rodriguez with a lead pipe and shooting at her in their car during an argument, Brown went on TV with a local Los Angeles reporter via satellite from Atlanta and appeared to be behaving erratically in response to some of the interviewer's questions, refusing to talk about the domestic issue with Rodriguez but instead wanted to bring more focus on his professional work including an upcoming tour of Brazil; at one point Brown began shouting out his song titles to one of the reporter's questions. This interview was later satirized by comedian Cedric the Entertainer during an appearance on Comic View. The interview later went viral in the early years of the new millennium and led some assuming that Brown was either drunk or doped up. One of Brown's former mistresses recalled in an GQ magazine article on Brown some years after his death that Brown would smoke PCP "until that got hard to find", and cocaine, mixed with tobacco in Kools cigarettes.[79] In January 1998, he spent a week in rehab to deal with an addiction to prescription painkillers; a week following his release, he was arrested for an unlawful use of a handgun and possession of marijuana.[80] [edit]Legal issues Brown's personal life was marred by several brushes with the law. At the age of 16, he was arrested for theft and served 3 years in prison. In 1978, while in concert at the Apollo, Brown was arrested onstage for failing to comply with a government order not to leave the country during an investigation of his radio stations.[46] In 1988, Brown was arrested twice, first for drugs and weapons charges in May, and later in September of that year following an alleged high-speed car chase on Interstate 20 near the Georgia-South Carolina state border. He was convicted of carrying an unlicensed pistol and assaulting a police officer, along with various drug-related and driving offenses. Although he was sentenced to six years in prison, he was eventually released in 1991 after serving only three years of his sentence. Brown's FBI file, released to The Washington Post in 2007 under the Freedom of Information Act,[81] related Brown's claim that the high-speed chase did not occur as claimed by the police, and that local police shot at his car several times during an incident of police harassment and assaulted him after his arrest.[82] Local authorities found no merit to Brown's accusations. In another incident, the police were summoned to Brown's residence on July 3, 2000 after he was accused of charging at an electric company repairman with a steak knife when the repairman visited Brown's house to investigate a complaint about having no lights at the residence.[83] In 2003, Brown was pardoned by the South Carolina Department of Probation, Parole, and Pardon Services for past crimes that he was convicted of committing in South Carolina.[84] For the remainder of his life, Brown was repeatedly arrested for domestic violence. Adrienne Rodriguez, his third wife, had him arrested four times between 1987 and 1995 on charges of assault. In January 2004, Brown was arrested in South Carolina on a domestic violence charge after Tomi Rae Hynie accused him of pushing her to the floor during an argument at their home, where she suffered scratches and bruises to her right arm and hip. Later that year in June 2004, Brown pleaded no contest to the domestic violence incident, but served no jail time. Instead, Brown was required to forfeit a US$1,087 bond as punishment.[85] In January 2005, a woman named Jacque Hollander filed a lawsuit against James Brown, which stemmed from an alleged 1988 forcible rape. When the case was initially heard before a judge in 2002, Hollander's claims against Brown were dismissed by the court as the limitations period for filing the suit had expired. Hollander claimed that stress from the alleged assault later caused her to contract Graves' Disease, a thyroid condition. Hollander claimed that the incident took place in South Carolina while she was employed by Brown as a publicist. Hollander alleged that, during her ride in a van with Brown, Brown pulled over to the side of the road and sexually assaulted her while he threatened her with a shotgun. In her case against Brown, Hollander entered as evidence a DNA sample and a polygraph result, but the evidence was not considered due to the limitations defense. Hollander later attempted to bring her case before the Supreme Court but nothing became of her complaint.[86] [edit]Death and aftermath Death On December 23, 2006, James Brown became ill and showed up at his dentist's office in Atlanta, Georgia several hours later than his appointment for dental implant work. During that visit, Brown's dentist observed that Brown looked "very bad ... weak and dazed." Instead of performing the dental work, the dentist advised Brown to see a doctor right away about his medical condition.[22] Brown checked in at the Emory Crawford Long Memorial Hospital the next day for a medical evaluation of his condition, and he was admitted to the hospital for observation and treatment.[87] According to Charles Bobbit, Brown's longtime personal manager and friend, Brown had been sick and suffering with a noisy cough since he returned from a November trip to Europe.[22] Bobbit also added that it was characteristic of Brown to never complain about being sick, and that he frequently performed during illness.[22] Although Brown had to cancel upcoming shows in Waterbury, Connecticut and Englewood, New Jersey, Brown was confident that the doctor would discharge him from the hospital in time to perform the New Year's Eve shows. For the New Year's celebrations, Brown was scheduled to perform at the Count Basie Theatre in New Jersey and at the B. B. King Blues Club in New York, in addition to performing a song live on CNN for the Anderson Cooper New Year's Eve special.[87] However, Brown remained hospitalized, and his medical condition worsened throughout that day. On Christmas Day, Brown died at approximately 1:45 am EST (06:45 UTC) from congestive heart failure resulting from complications of pneumonia, with his personal manager and longtime friend Charles Bobbit at his bedside.[88] According to Mr. Bobbit, Brown stuttered "I'm going away tonight", and then Brown took three long, quiet breaths and fell asleep before dying.[89] [edit]Memorial services   Public memorial at the Apollo Theater in Harlem

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